What is hip arthrosis, what are its symptoms, and how is it treated? Arthrosis is a disease that deforms and destroys joints. Treatment of arthrosis of the hip joint is a very long process. In the middle of the last century, coxarthrosis was considered a sentence for a patient, inevitably leading him to an early disability. But due to the development of medical science, hip arthrosis can be stopped and cured at the initial stage of the disease.
What is arthrosis of the hip joint?
Arthrosis is a disease in the course of which there is a slow destruction and deformation of the joint due to changes in the structure of the cartilage tissue. Arthrosis is often confused with arthritis, however, these are different diseases, although they can be present at the same time, for example - arthrosis arthritis of the hip joint. The difference between arthrosis and arthritis is that with arthrosis, deformities occur not due to infectious tissue inflammation, but due to deviations in metabolic processes.
Combined therapy is used - the knowledge of the reasons due to which the pathology arose, helped to determine the correct tactics for the treatment of arthrosis of the hip joint. When determining how to treat arthrosis of the hip joint, the attending physician may focus on both medications and physical therapy. The question of surgical intervention may also be raised if too serious changes have affected the hip joint - treatment based on medications will be ineffective.
Causes of occurrence
Coxarthrosis can be triggered by trauma or appear due to old age. Also, coxarthrosis can be congenital. However, the main risk factors are the following:
- diabetes mellitus;
- poor heredity (genetic predisposition).
These reasons can provoke coxarthrosis at any age. For risk groups, it is advisable to undergo a preventive examination every six months with a specialized specialist who deals with joint problems.
Interesting! Many people do not know which doctor treats arthrosis of the hip and other joints, and unknowingly go to a traumatologist. A doctor who can help in this situation is called an arthrologist.
An arthrologist is a specialized specialist who knows not only all tactics and drugs for the treatment of arthrosis, but will also be able to select the types and analogues of these drugs, according to individual indicators.
Arthrosis is often diagnosed in patients over 40 years old. The disease develops in stages, there are three possible stages:
- Abnormalities in metabolism occur. It is followed by violations of the synthesis of substances. The nourishment of the cartilage is getting worse.
- Insufficient nourishment makes the cartilage less elastic. It gradually becomes thinner. The interosseous lumen is reduced.
- With the thinning of the cartilage tissue, the load on the bone tissue increases and bone deformations occur.
With arthrosis of the hip joint, degenerative changes in cartilage tissue may become noticeable to the patient only years later, not immediately at stage 1.
Each stage has its own characteristic features. It is important to determine at what stage of the arthrosis of the hip joint, the symptoms and treatment at each stage differ radically. Depending on the stage of the disease, drugs can be prescribed, or surgery.
Medication is considered effective only in stages 1 and 2. At stage 3, for a complete cure, surgical intervention is required, otherwise the person remains disabled.
At stage 1, they can reverse the process, and at transition 1 to 2, and at 2, they can stop the process of cartilage destruction and slightly improve the condition of cartilage tissues. Stage 1 is characterized by the following manifestations:
- soreness manifests itself only during physical activity;
- concentration of pain in the articulation area;
- pain goes away on its own after rest;
- limb mobility is not limited;
- The condition of the muscle tissue is normal.
For grade 1 arthrosis, only radiographs and tomography are effective.
Stage 2 arthrosis is characterized by the following manifestations:
- wandering pains in the thigh area;
- pain does not go away by itself - pain relievers are required;
- motor activity is difficult and limited;
- muscle atrophy is present.
In case of arthrosis of the 2nd degree, no hardware research is required - the disease is diagnosed during a visual examination. Nevertheless, they are sent for MRI and X-ray to determine the size of the deformity.
In 3 stages, arthrosis has the following manifestations:
- chronic pain;
- movement is possible only with a cane;
- affected limb of shorter length.
Signs of arthrosis of the hip joint will be subtle, and the symptoms characteristic of arthrosis may be completely absent or not expressed.
Characteristic manifestations for arthrosis
Symptoms of arthrosis and its nature depend on the stage of development of the pathology. The most pronounced symptom is pain. The patient may even feel that he has a hip fracture - the pain syndrome is so intense. The photo shows that the femoral neck and hip joint are very close.
Arthrosis of the hip is insidious and in the early stages can be mistaken for just fatigue. For this reason, treatment is delayed. Sometimes it is even necessary to replace the joint with an endoprosthesis, since all drugs are already powerless. The photo shows an x-ray with joint replacement options.
Coxarthrosis mainly gives these types of symptoms:
- Pain syndrome. The main source of pain is difficult to pinpoint. If they appear at rest, it is worth paying a visit to an arthrologist.
- Some limited movement, slight limp.
- After some time, the diseased limb becomes slightly shorter than the healthy one.
- Muscle atrophy is present - diagnosed during palpation.
Progressive research methods are required, since arthrosis of the hip joint does not always give symptoms, and its treatment is possible only if accurate data are available.
After having been examined by an arthrologist and passed the necessary examinations, the doctor decides how to treat arthrosis of the hip joint. First of all, the disease is assigned the ICD 10 code. This makes it easier for the doctor to choose the right treatment tactics.
Regardless of the tactic chosen, treatment is based on 6 fundamental principles:
- pain relief;
- replenishment and restoration of cartilage;
- improved blood flow to the damaged area;
- reduction of joint load;
- strengthening of muscle tissue;
- restoration of articular mobility.
In order to achieve all goals, it is customary to use a combination therapy. For example, all the positive effect of using chondoprotectors will be destroyed if the load on the diseased joint is not reduced. Thus, during the treatment of arthrosis, 2-10 types of approaches are used - it all depends on the severity of the disease and the general indicators of the patient. The most common approaches are the following:
- The non-steroidal group of drugs is combined with exercise therapy and other physiotherapeutic measures (massages and others).
- Chondroprotectors in combination with hyaluronic acid. It is often used as a restorative therapy.
- Vasodilator drugs can be combined with both chondroprotectors and non-steroidal drugs and exercise therapy.
- Anesthetic ointments can be used as an adjunct to any of the other treatments. They themselves do not have a positive effect on the joint.
- Corticosteroids as intra-articular injections in combination with physiotherapy.
Hip braces are often used to restrict joint movement. Physiotherapy and non-traditional techniques.
Physiotherapy and non-traditional techniques
In addition to drug therapy, the patient may need to undergo physiotherapy procedures and can even use unconventional methods as part of the treatment.
Interesting! If you follow the principles of a healthy diet and bring body mass indicators to normal, it is possible to significantly ease the course of the disease and reduce the severity of symptoms.
The most common additional procedures that arthrosis patients undergo are:
- Manual therapy means that a specialist, using massage techniques, facilitates the course of the disease.
- Exercise therapy (remedial gymnastics) - a huge number of different options for physical exercises, different in complexity of execution. Helps in the restoration of atrophied muscles.
- Folk remedies - most doctors are against this method, but they may consider it as an adjunctive therapy. With the right approach, it enhances the effectiveness of drug therapy.
- Homeopathy - official medicine has not proven the effectiveness of homeopathic therapy, however, some patients claim its positive effects and improvement in general condition.
- Apitherapy is a highly controversial technique based on the treatment of bees and the properties of bee venom.
The following procedures also apply:
- Magnetotherapy is used as an adjunct therapy, as well as an auxiliary measure. Due to the influence of magnetic fields on the human body, the blood flow improves and the metabolic processes are gradually restored.
- Hirudotherapy - due to the blood-thinning components contained in the saliva of leeches, blood flow improves and blood enters the vessels of atrophied muscles in a larger volume.
- Mud therapy brings some nutrients through the skin and has a tonic effect.
- Shilajit is used both separately and as part of compresses and tinctures. Official medicine does not deny, but does not confirm a positive action, everything is based on the individual sensitivity of the patient.
- Self-massage is used to enhance blood and lymph flow. Before performing, you need to consult an experienced chiropractor or massage therapist. The specialist will teach the correct movements and help to work out their correct execution.
Each additional measure must be agreed with the attending specialist.
Nuance! Traditional medicine, contrary to many claims, is neutral about complementary therapeutic measures. However, if they are performed incorrectly (for example, sudden movements and strong pressure during self-massage), they can aggravate the course of the disease.
Some methods related to alternative medicine may be contraindicated - an allergic reaction or other negative manifestation is possible after application.
At the later stages of the disease, treatment using traditional and alternative medicine methods does not bring the desired positive result. The operation can be a joint replacement, or manipulation using a laser.
Replacement of a joint allows you to restore all the motor capabilities of the joint to the fullest. The biggest drawback, with the exception of the high cost of the surgeon's work directly, is not too significant service life. On average, an articular prosthesis requires replacement every 15 years.
Laser therapy for already operated coxarthrosis is used when the articular part of the bone is rejected. Thanks to this method, it is possible to remove the damaged area and replace it with an insert made of artificial materials.
Any surgical intervention for coxarthrosis is a purely temporary measure. However, if it is not carried out, then with arthrosis at stage 3, a person will inevitably become disabled without the possibility of normal movement on their own.
Preventive measures for arthrosis of the hip joint are based on the elimination of risk factors that can cause coxarthrosis. Prevention of coxarthrosis consists in following a healthy lifestyle and following general strengthening measures:
- Accept and love an active lifestyle. The greatest danger in pathology is the absence of any joint mobility - salts are deposited and other complications arise. Light, but systematic physical activity is necessary.
- Monitor your own diet. You should adhere to such a dietary style so that there are no weight problems. Nevertheless, you should refrain from using large amounts of table salt in dishes. The same applies to spicy and spicy dishes. Nutrition should be complete and contain all the necessary micro and macro elements.
- Do not neglect routine medical examinations - this will allow you to detect the disease at the earliest stage.
- Avoid hypothermia - such a negative effect can cause inflammation in the joints and lead to arthrosis.
If you suspect coxarthrosis, you should not try to diagnose yourself. Even an experienced physician cannot always at first glance and only after questioning the patient accurately and confidently declare that this is coxarthrosis. And even more so, it is unacceptable to prescribe therapy on its own - at least medication, at least some other. Lack of awareness about the impact on the body and possible side effects can lead to sad consequences.