Low back pain: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Osteochondrosis - a disease, familiar to 40% of the population under the age of 35-40 years and almost 90% in the elderly. Even teenagers sometimes revealed signs of degenerative disc disease – decreases the height of the drives, pain, discomfort in the spine. If you start treatment of the disease in the first stage, before the destruction of the drive a chance to stop the progression is very high.

What is osteochondrosis?


Osteochondrosis of the spine is the lesion of one or several intervertebral discs. The disease can occur in any Department:

  • Breast;
  • Shane;
  • Lumbar (lumbosacral).

In severe cases, degeneration of the vertebral disks on the background of osteochondrosis is observed around the pillar, which becomes the cause of disability of the person. So what is this disease – osteochondrosis? Pathology associated with the gradual, steady, and progressive malnutrition hyaline cartilage, located on the intervertebral discs, causing them to change position, shape, crack. A person experiences severe pain syndrome and the function of the whole musculoskeletal system are violated.

What is osteochondrosis in relation to its consequences? If left untreated, the vertebrae will be compressed, the gaps between them decrease, and the disks will be to crumble. This will lead to the defeat of the nerve roots, the spinal cord injury and disruption of the internal organs. The edges of the discs appear bony osteophytes – outgrowths, which cause more pain. The consequences of this diseases of the spine are very serious.

The main causes of osteochondrosis

Scientists came to the conclusion, studying low back pain that the disease is a consequence of bipedal locomotion of a man, so he is exposed to most people. Daily high load on the discs of the spine, age-related deterioration of the functions of the vessels, deficiency of nutrition and aging are the main causes of low back pain. Weight situation the following factors:

  • Frequent incorrect position of the body (for example, the curved seat behind the Desk, wearing bags on the shoulder);
  • Sleep on soft mattresses, cushions;
  • Flat feet, deformity of the feet;
  • Metabolic diseases;
  • The excess weight creates a reinforced load on the spine;
  • Lack of exercise;
  • Posture;
  • Multiple pregnancy;
  • Long experience of Smoking;
  • Instability of the vertebrae.

Injury, heavy physical work greatly aggravate the development of osteochondrosis. Therefore, in athletes, manual workers osteochondrosis of a loin is a very "popular" problem. Heredity also plays a role in the pathogenesis of syndrome – if the parents at a young age had serious problems with my back, baby has a high risk to get disease of the spine.

Psychosomatics degenerative disc disease

Psychosomatic causes of disease – a new direction in the search of the preconditions for its formation. Psychosomatic implies the influence of psychological factors on the development and course of physical disease. The connection between bodily and mental problems is really tight and seemingly healthy person can suffer from regular pain. Osteochondrosis some people are not detected by the objective reasons for the disease, but she continues to progress.

Up to 30% of patients after a visit to the doctor indicate troubles such as:

  • Constant stress;
  • Chronic experiences;
  • Nervous strain;
  • Problems in the family;
  • Conflicts;
  • The moral breakdown.

The stage of the disease

The intervertebral disk consists of liquid and solid parts. The first is in the center, representing the core, which imparts elasticity. On top of the core is surrounded by a durable ring. With liquid structure starts, all pathological changes in the disk, which later spread to his sheath.

In medicine there are four stages in the development of osteochondrosis. This refers to the conventional division of pathology according to severity of disorders of the spine:

Psychosomatics degenerative disc disease
  • The first stage of osteoarthritis. The amount of moisture in the disk falls off, he is dehydrated. Destruction not yet happening, but after the strong dehydration of the nucleus into the fibrous ring begin to appear mikrotreschinki. Symptoms at this stage of the disease are usually absent.
  • The second stage of osteoarthritis. The height of the disc begins to decrease, which means the gradual accession of the symptoms and progression of diseases. In the spine between individual segments decreases as the distance from which ligaments SAG. At this stage in some patients the disease causes slippage of the vertebrae – spondylolisthesis. Pain, discomfort when acute, pain may be present even in remission.
  • The third stage. Osteochondrosis of the spine at this stage gives a strong pain, after all, begin to form the complications. Most often it is disk protrusion, at least – arthrosis (degeneration) vertebral joints, subluxation of the vertebrae. The pain is complemented by the limitation of the affected segment of the spine.
  • The fourth stage of osteoarthritis. The spine begins to adapt to the new conditions of existence, trying to fix the vertebrae, to protect it from ultimate destruction. For this grow osteophytes. The pain may be sharp due to the injury to the nerves.

Symptoms of degenerative disc disease

The first symptoms of the degenerative disc disease usually starts at an early stage, when the pain yet. In the neck, back, rarely in the thoracic spine when driving you can hear the crunch (it means the violation of drive power, it dehydration). Further, in case of overload, the work in an uncomfortable position a person can mention stiff back or neck. They become the "stone" on one or both sides, which is uncomfortable, causes burning, irritation.

Subsequently, the symptoms of degenerative disc disease become more obvious. Alone a person can feel fine but work, heavy lifting, sleep on an uncomfortable pillow may cause the following phenomena:

  • Aching pain;
  • Aching;
  • Numbness in hands (with the defeat of neck);
  • A feeling of stiffness;
  • The forced reduction of movements;
  • Muscle spasm;
  • Backache;
  • The increase in pressure;
  • Incorrect posture.
Symptoms of degenerative disc disease

If you overload the patient's spine osteochondrosis gives a more pronounced signs and symptoms. The pain occurs in the shoulders, gives into the hands, elbows, headaches. Osteochondrosis of the cervical there is noise in the ears, dizziness, evolving vertebral artery syndrome, impaired vision. Over time without treatment of degenerative disc disease is atrophy of the muscles, the skin becomes pale. May worsen the course of heart abnormalities, impaired liver function, gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract.

What causes the pathology?

The consequences of this disease is always unpleasant, they trigger increased pain. In osteochondrosis occur:

  • Disk protrusion;
  • Prolapse and herniated disc;
  • Bouts of sciatica, sciatica, lumbago;
  • Kyphosis, scoliosis.

The danger to humans is largely dependent on the type of hernia in osteochondrosis of the spine. They are the front, rear, side, and back the most dangerous of hernia can press on the spinal cord. In the lumbar segment of the spine hernias occur most often, mostly between 4-5 vertebrae.

Lumbar degenerative disc disease can cause very unpleasant symptoms – backache (lumbago). Pain in lumbago hot, sharp, unbearable, it is very difficult to make. Cause is a pinched nerve because the patient is damaged neuro-vascular bundle. Especially dangerous when degenerative disc disease cauda equina syndrome, when a person is pinched large bundle of spinal nerves. In the end affects the function of the bowel and bladder, and could even cause paralysis of the legs.


Signs of osteoarthritis are often confined to severe muscle atrophy. If the muscles are not long-term participate in the work of the body, the spinal movement is constrained, the individual fibers are weakened. As a result the patient may become disabled, bedridden. Very dangerous and cervical osteochondrosis, because the hernia in this segment can cause circulatory disorders of the brain. At this stage, there is a risk of disturbances of vision, swallowing, speech and other brain functions.

Diagnosis of the disease

Independently recognizing the signs of osteoarthritis, you need to think about its treatment. Because the lesions of the spine may reach different stages, treatment of osteoarthritis will also differ. It is important to make the correct diagnosis to therapy was chosen correctly.

Because of the wide prevalence of the disease and the presence of characteristic symptoms to suggest the diagnosis, the doctor will be able to have the preliminary examination. But for differentiation of osteoarthritis from other diseases of the back and internal organs such diagnostics is performed:

  • Radiography of the spine. Will help to identify the height of the disk, the degree of thinning, and the presence of osteophytes.
  • CT, MRI. More preferred in the survey. In this disease will determine the severity of the injury to nerves, soft tissue, find the smallest protrusion.

Osteochondrosis laboratory tests do not play a primary role, but delivery of the overall analysis, biochemistry is required for elimination of inflammatory process, rheumatoid bone disease, joints. To study the function of muscles, the doctor carries out a number of physical tests, and to clarify the operation of the vessels and nerves do duplex, electromyography.

Treatment of osteoarthritis with medicines

If osteochondrosis the symptoms and treatment identified, to proceed with the therapy not worth it – the disease progresses rapidly. At an early stage is usually recommended exercises, massage to strengthen the muscles is enough. At other stages of degenerative disc disease will need medication and sometimes surgery.

Pain is the unpleasant symptom of the disease – you can use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cure low back pain for them, but they are always assigned prior to conducting therapy to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, drugs are administered as injections, but most of them recommend a course of 7-14 days in tablets and topically, in the form of ointments.

If a person has a strong painful syndrome in the area of the spine, he administered injections of corticosteroids directly into the affected area.

Treatment of degenerative disc disease may also be performed with the help of the following tools:

  • B vitamins Help to improve nerve conduction of the spine.
  • Chondroprotectors. Nourish the intervertebral cartilage, strengthen the discs.
  • The muscle relaxants. Reduces the force of muscle spasms in the low back pain.
  • Cardiovascular medications. Optimize blood circulation in the spine.

If you have developed osteoarthritis, for pain relief and pathogenetic treatment give only chondroprotectors, accept their courses for 3-6 months. The remaining funds are symptomatic action, and for actually osteoarthritis is not affect.

Physiotherapy and low back pain

Diagnosis of the disease

The list of measures than to treat degenerative disc disease, be sure to include physiotherapy techniques. Thanks to physical therapy treatment of degenerative disc disease will be more effective, because the action is spread directly on the area of inflammation. Physical therapy will relieve the painful syndrome, eliminate spasms, improve blood circulation, will help to remove the clamps off of the nerves. The most popular methods are as follows:

  • Electrophoresis. Treatment of degenerative disc disease in this way will allow us to deliver a relaxing, anti-inflammatory agents and anesthetics directly into the area of the vertebrae, muscles, ligaments.
  • Ultrasound. Relieves unpleasant symptoms, relieve, creates the effect of vibration massage activates the metabolism at the local level.
  • Magnetotherapy. Variable or constant magnetic field eliminate the inflammatory process.

All kinds of physiotherapy needs to be courses for 10-15 procedures at the same time we consider individual contraindications.

Gymnastics and massage

Exercise therapy in the treatment of osteochondrosis plays a major role. No therapy will fail to create a strong muscular corset, and the latter urgently needed to maintain the patient's spine. Gymnastics also increases blood circulation in the area of the vertebrae, improves metabolism and helps to avert decay products.

How to cure low back pain in the gym? The complex is selected individually and only on stage 1-2, it can be done without medical supervision. In the later stages of extra, more severe movement may cause the displacement of the disk, and the growing problem. Stage 3 all the exercises do only in the supine position.

For the treatment of osteoarthritis necessarily need a massage. In the acute stage do not do it – it will cause a thrill. But a properly carried out massage in the chronic stage of osteochondrosis is indispensable. After a course of sessions relax muscles, remove the clamps begin to function normally the nerves and blood vessels. The massage is performed gently, no sudden movements.

Treatment of degenerative disc disease

Prevention of disease

Not to bring up surgery for degenerative disc disease, it is important to pay attention to preventive measures:

  • To prevent inactivity. The disease can progress weight loads, swimming, skiing, charging will only benefit and help to strengthen the muscles and health in General.
  • To monitor the posture. At work and at home, it is important to sit, do not slouch, and since childhood.
  • Sleep on comfortable pillows. Is prevention pillow, with the existing osteochondrosis used a few others, therapeutic.
  • Not to lift weights. If it is necessary to sit, to stand together with the object, keeping your back straight.
  • Regularly do exercises to strengthen the muscles. It is important for the muscles of the neck, back, press, lower back.
  • Wear comfortable shoes. Orthopedic shoes will not be allowed to develop risk factor for lesions of the vertebrae.

It is also important to eat well, not smoke, to enrich the diet with vitamins, consume more fluids – so the likelihood of pathology decreases.